sejarah penjajahan belanda di indonesia

[nasional_list] [ppiindia] Penjajahan Belanda oleh VOC (Kompeni)

  • From: ashfah rahman
  • To: ekonomi-nasional@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, KOMPAS <Forum-Pembaca-Kompas@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>, ppiindia@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  • Date: Mon, 10 Aug 2009 18:18:34 -0700 (PDT)

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Untuk meluruskan sejarah dari plintiran segelintir orang yang mengatakan bahwa
VOC itu bukan penjajah, tapi cuma perusahaan biasa, maka saya forward berbagai
tulisan dari Ensiklopedi Wikipedia dan sebagainya dengan banyak sumber dari
para ahli sejarah baik Eropa mau pun Indonesia.

Memang VOC itu adalah perusahaan. Tapi mereka tahun 1644 punya 150 kapal dan
15000 tentara. Dengan kemampuan itu, mereka bisa mengalahkan raja2 lokal di
Indonesia dengan teknik devide et impera. Menjadikan segelintir orang Indonesia
jadi antek2nya dan juga kuli kontrak.

Mereka memonopoli perkebunan di Indonesia kadang2 dengan pemerasan dan
pembunuhan.

Silahkan baca berbagai berita selanjutnya.

Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie
Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Langsung ke: navigasi, cari
Replika Amsterdam (1749)

Vereenigde Oost indische Compagnie (Perserikatan Perusahaan Hindia Timur) atau
VOC yang didirikan pada tanggal 20 Maret 1602 adalah perusahaan Belanda yang
memiliki monopoli untuk aktivitas perdagangan di Asia. Disebut Hindia Timur
karena ada pula VWC yang merupakan perserikatan dagang Hindia Barat. Perusahaan
ini dianggap sebagai perusahaan pertama yang mengeluarkan pembagian saham.

Meskipun sebenarnya VOC merupakan sebuah badan dagang saja, tetapi badan dagang
ini istimewa karena didukung oleh negara dan diberi fasilitas-fasilitas sendiri
yang istimewa. Misalkan VOC boleh memiliki tentara dan boleh bernegosiasi
dengan negara-negara lain.. Bisa dikatakan VOC adalah negara dalam negara.

VOC terdiri 6 Bagian (Kamers) di Amsterdam, Middelburg (untuk Zeeland),
Enkhuizen, Delft, Hoorn dan Rotterdam. Delegasi dari ruang ini berkumpul
sebagai Heeren XVII (XVII Tuan-Tuan). Kamers menyumbangkan delegasi ke dalam
tujuh belas sesuai dengan proporsi modal yang mereka bayarkan; delegasi
Amsterdam berjumlah delapan..

Di Indonesia VOC memiliki sebutan populer Kompeni atau Kumpeni. Istilah ini
diambil dari kata compagnie dalam nama lengkap perusahaan tersebut dalam bahasa
Belanda.
Logo Kamar Dagang VOC di Amsterdam
Daftar isi
[sembunyikan]

    * 1 Latar belakang
    * 2 Hak istimewa
    * 3 Garis waktu
    * 4 Kapal VOC
    * 5 Lihat pula
    * 6 Pranala luar

[sunting] Latar belakang

Datangnya orang Eropa melalui jalur laut diawali oleh Vasco da Gama, yang pada
tahun 1497-1498 berhasil berlayar dari Eropa ke India melalui Tanjung
Pengharapan (Cape of Good Hope) di ujung selatan Afrika, sehingga mereka tidak
perlu lagi bersaing dengan pedagang-pedagang Timur Tengah untuk memperoleh
akses ke Asia Timur, yang selama ini ditempuh melalui jalur darat yang sangat
berbahaya. Pada awalnya, tujuan utama bangsa-bangsa Eropa ke Asia Timur dan
Tenggara termasuk ke Nusantara adalah untuk perdagangan, demikian juga dengan
bangsa Belanda. Misi dagang yang kemudian dilanjutkan dengan politik pemukiman
-kolonisasi- dilakukan oleh Belanda dengan kerajaan-kerajaan di Jawa, Sumatera
dan Maluku, sedangkan di Suriname dan Curaçao, tujuan Belanda sejak awal adalah
murni kolonisasi (pemukiman). Dengan latar belakang perdagangan inilah awal
kolonialisasi bangsa Indonesia (Hindia Belanda) berawal.

Selama abad ke 16 perdagangan rempah-rempah didominasi oleh Portugis dengan
menggunakan Lisbon sebagai pelabuhan utama. Sebelum revolusi di negeri Belanda
kota Antwerp memegang peranan penting sebagai distributor di Eropa Utara, akan
tetapi setelah tahun 1591 Portugis melakukan kerjasama dengan firma-firma dari
Jerman, Spanyol dan Italia menggunakan Hamburg sebagai pelabuhan utama sebagai
tempat untuk mendistribusikan barang-barang dari Asia, memindah jalur
perdagangan tidak melewati Belanda. Namun ternyata perdagangan yang dilakukan
Portugis tidak efisien dan tidak mampu menyuplai permintaan yang terus
meninggi, terutama lada. Suplai yang tidak lancar menyebabkan harga lada
meroket pada saat itu. Selain itu Unifikasi Portugal dan Kerajaan Spanyol (yang
sedang dalam keadaan perang dengan Belanda pada saat itu) pada tahun 1580,
menimbulkan kekhawatiran tersendiri bagi Belanda. ketiga faktor tersebutlah
yang mendorong Belanda memasuki perdagangan
 rempah-rempah Interkontinental. Akhirnya Jan Huyghen van Linschoten dan
Cornelis de Houtman menemukan "jalur rahasia" pelayaran Portugis, yang membawa
pelayaran pertama Cornelis de Houtman ke Banten, pelabuhan utama di Jawa pada
tahun 1595-1597.

Pada tahun 1596 empat kapal ekspedisi dipimpin oleh Cornelis de Houtman
berlayar menuju Indonesia, dan merupakan kontak pertama Indonesia dengan
Belanda. Ekspedisi ini mencapai Banten, pelabuhan lada utama di Jawa Barat,
disini mereka terlibat dalam perseteruan dengan orang Portugis dan penduduk
lokal. Houtman berlayar lagi ke arah timur melalui pantai utara Jawa, sempat
diserang oleh penduduk lokal di Sedayu berakibat pada kehilangan 12 orang awak,
dan terlibat perseteruan dengan penduduk lokal di Madura menyebabkan
terbunuhnya seorang pimpinan lokal. Setelah kehilangan separuh awak maka pada
tahun berikutnya mereka memutuskan untuk kembali ke Belanda namun rempah-rempah
yang dibawa cukup untuk menghasilkan keuntungan.
Kamar Dagang VOC di Amsterdam

Adalah para pedagang Inggris yang memulai mendirikan perusahaan dagang di Asia
pada 31 Desember 1600 yang dinamakan The Britisch East India Company dan
berpusat di Kalkuta. Kemudian Belanda menyusul tahun 1602 dan Prancis pun tak
mau ketinggalan dan mendirikan French East India Company tahun 1604.

Pada 20 Maret 1602, para pedagang Belanda mendirikan Verenigde Oost-Indische
Compagnie - VOC (Perkumpulan Dagang India Timur). Di masa itu, terjadi
persaingan sengit di antara negara-negara Eropa, yaitu Portugis, Spanyol
kemudian juga Inggris, Perancis dan Belanda, untuk memperebutkan hegemoni
perdagangan di Asia Timur. Untuk menghadapai masalah ini, oleh Staaten Generaal
di Belanda, VOC diberi wewenang memiliki tentara yang harus mereka biayai
sendiri. Selain itu, VOC juga mempunyai hak, atas nama Pemerintah Belanda -yang
waktu itu masih berbentuk Republik- untuk membuat perjanjian kenegaraan dan
menyatakan perang terhadap suatu negara. Wewenang ini yang mengakibatkan, bahwa
suatu perkumpulan dagang seperti VOC, dapat bertindak seperti layaknya satu
negara.

Perusahaan ini mendirikan markasnya di Batavia (sekarang Jakarta) di pulau
Jawa. Pos kolonial lainnya juga didirikan di tempat lainnya di Hindia Timur
yang kemudian menjadi Indonesia, seperti di kepulauan rempah-rempah (Maluku),
yang termasuk Kepulauan Banda di mana VOC manjalankan monopoli atas pala dan
fuli. Metode yang digunakan untuk mempertahankan monompoli termasuk kekerasan
terhadap populasi lokal, dan juga pemerasan dan pembunuhan massal.

Pos perdagangan yang lebih tentram di Deshima, pulau buatan di lepas pantai
Nagasaki, adalah tempat satu-satunya di mana orang Eropa dapat berdagang dengan
Jepang.

Tahun 1603 VOC memperoleh izin di Banten untuk mendirikan kantor perwakilan,
dan pada 1610 Pieter Both diangkat menjadi Gubernur Jenderal VOC pertama
(1610-1614), namun ia memilih Jayakarta sebagai basis administrasi VOC.
Sementara itu, Frederik de Houtman menjadi Gubernur VOC di Ambon (1605 - 1611)
dan setelah itu menjadi Gubernur untuk Maluku (1621 - 1623).

[sunting] Hak istimewa

Hak-hak istimewa yang tercantum dalam Oktrooi (Piagam/Charta) tanggal 20 Maret
1602 meliputi:

    * Hak monopoli untuk berdagang dan berlayar di wilayah sebelah timur
Tanjung Harapan dan sebelah barat Selat Magelhaens serta menguasai perdagangan
untuk kepentingan sendiri;
    * Hak kedaulatan (soevereiniteit) sehingga dapat bertindak layaknya suatu
negara untuk:

   1. memelihara angkatan perang,
   2. memaklumkan perang dan mengadakan perdamaian,
   3. merebut dan menduduki daerah-daerah asing di luar Negeri Belanda,
   4. memerintah daerah-daerah tersebut,
   5. menetapkan/mengeluarkan mata-uang sendiri, dan
   6. memungut pajak.

Sebuah saham Perusahaan Hindia Timur Belanda, tertanggal 7 November 1623, untuk
jumlah 2.400 florin

[sunting] Garis waktu

Pada 1652, Jan van Riebeeck mendirikan pos di Tanjung Harapan (ujung selatan
Afrika, sekarang ini Afrika Selatan) untuk menyediakan kapal VOC untuk
perjalanan mereka ke Asia Timur. Pos ini kemudian menjadi koloni sungguhan
ketika lebih banyak lagi orang Belanda dan Eropa lainnya mulai tinggal di sini.
Pos VOC juga didirikan di Persia (sekarang Iran), Benggala (sekarang
Bangladesh) dan sebagian India), Ceylon (sekarang Sri Lanka), Malaka (sekarang
Malaysia), Siam (sekarang Thailand), Cina daratan (Kanton), Formosa (sekarang
Taiwan) dan selatan India. Pada 1662, Koxinga mengusir Belanda dari Taiwan.

Pada 1669, VOC merupakan perusahaan pribadi terkaya dalam sepanjang sejarah,
dengan lebih dari 150 perahu dagang, 40 kapal perang, 50.000 pekerja, angkatan
bersenjata pribadi dengan 10.000 tentara, dan pembayaran dividen 40%.

Perusahaan ini hampir selalu terjadi konflik dengan Inggris; hubungan keduanya
memburuk ketika terjadi Pembantaian Ambon pada tahun 1623. Pada abad ke-18,
kepemilikannya memusatkan di Hindia Timur. Setelah peperangan keempat antara
Provinsi Bersatu dan Inggris (1780-1784), VOC mendapatkan kesulitan finansial,
dan pada 17 Maret 1798, perusahaan ini dibubarkan, setelah Belanda diinvasi
oleh tentara Napoleon Bonaparte dari Perancis. Hindia Timur diserahkan kepada
Kerajaan Belanda oleh Kongres Wina di 1815.
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vereenigde_Oostindische_Compagnie

Dutch East India Company
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the trading company. For the record label, see Dutch East
India Trading.
Dutch East India Company Logo of the VOC
Former type     Public company
Fate    Bankruptcy
Founded         20 March 1602 (1602-03-20)
Defunct         17 March 1798 (1798-03-17)
Headquarters    East India House, Amsterdam, Holland, Dutch Republic
Industry        Trade

The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in
Dutch, literally "United East Indian Company") was a trading company, which was
established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a
21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia. It was the first
multinational corporation in the world and the first company to issue stock.[1]
It was also arguably the world's first megacorporation, possessing
quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, negotiate
treaties, coin money, and establish colonies.[2]

The Dutch East India Company remained an important trading concern for almost
two centuries, paying an 18% annual dividend for almost 200 years. In its
declining years in the late 18th century it was referred to as Vergaan Onder
Corruptie (referring to the acronym VOC) which translates as 'Perished By
Corruption'. The VOC became bankrupt and was formally dissolved in 1800,[3] its
possessions and the debt being taken over by the government of the Dutch
Batavian Republic. The VOC's territories became the Dutch East Indies and were
expanded over the course of the 19th century to include the whole of the
Indonesian archipelago, and in the 20th century would form Indonesia.
Contents
[hide]

    * 1 History
          o 1.1 Background
          o 1.2 Formation
          o 1.3 Growth
          o 1.4 Reorientation
          o 1.5 Decline
    * 2 Organization
          o 2.1 VOC outposts
    * 3 Notable VOC ships
    * 4 See also
    * 5 References
    * 6 Further reading
    * 7 External links

[edit] History
See also: Dutch East India Company in Indonesia and Economic History of the
Netherlands (1500 - 1815)

[edit] Background
VOC headquarters in Amsterdam (the Oost-Indisch Huis)
A bond issued by the Dutch East India Company, dating from 7 November 1623, for
the amount of 2,400 florins.

During the 16th century the spice trade was dominated by the Portuguese who
used Lisbon as a staple port. Before the Dutch Revolt Antwerp had played an
important role as a distribution center in northern Europe, but after 1591 the
Portuguese used an international syndicate of the German Fuggers and Welsers,
and Spanish and Italian firms that used Hamburg as its northern staple, to
distribute their goods, thereby cutting out Dutch merchants. At the same time,
the Portuguese trade system was so inefficient that it was unable to supply
growing demand, in particular the demand for pepper. The demand for spices was
relatively inelastic, and the lagging supply of pepper therefore caused a sharp
rise in pepper prices at the time.

Likewise, as Portugal had been "united" with the Spanish crown, with which the
Dutch Republic was at war, in 1580, the Portuguese Empire became an appropriate
target for military incursions. These three factors formed motive for Dutch
merchants to enter the intercontinental spice trade themselves at this time.
Finally, a number of Dutchmen like Jan Huyghen van Linschoten and Cornelis de
Houtman obtained first hand knowledge of the "secret" Portuguese trade routes
and practices, thereby providing opportunity.[4] The stage was thus set for
Houtman's first voyage to Banten, the chief port of Java, and back (1595–97),
which generated a modest profit.[5]

In 1596, a group of Dutch merchants decided to try again to circumvent the
Portuguese monopoly. In 1596, a four-ship expedition led by Cornelis de Houtman
was the first Dutch contact with Indonesia.[6] The expedition reached Banten,
the main pepper port of West Java, where they clashed with both the Portuguese
and indigenous Indonesians. Houtman's expedition then sailed east along the
north coast of Java, losing twelve crew to a Javanese attack at Sidayu and
killing a local ruler in Madura. Half the crew were lost before the expedition
made it back to the Netherlands the following year, but with enough spices to
make a considerable profit.[7]

In 1598, an increasing number of new fleets were sent out by competing merchant
groups from around the Netherlands. Some fleets were lost, but most were
successful, with some voyages producing high profits. In March 1599, a fleet of
twenty-two ships under Jacob van Neck of five different companies was the first
Dutch fleet to reach the ‘Spice Islands’ of Maluku. The ships returned to
Europe in 1599 and 1600 and, although eight ships were lost, the expedition
made a 400 percent profit.[7] In 1600, the Dutch joined forces with the local
Hituese (near Ambon) in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the
Dutch were given the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu.[8] Dutch control
of Ambon was achieved in alliance with Hitu when in February 1605, they
prepared to attack a Portuguese fort in Ambon but the Portuguese surrendered.
In 1613, the Dutch expelled the Portuguese from their Solor fort, but a
subsequent Portuguese attack led to a second
 change of hands; following this second reoccupation, the Dutch once again
captured Solor, in 1636.[8]

[edit] Formation

At the time, it was customary for a company to be set up only for the duration
of a single voyage, and to be liquidated right after the return of the fleet.
Investment in these expeditions was a very high-risk venture, not only because
of the usual dangers of piracy, disease and shipwreck, but also because the
interplay of inelastic demand and relatively elastic supply[9] of spices could
make prices tumble at just the wrong moment, thereby ruining prospects of
profitability. To manage such risk the forming of a cartel to control supply
would seem logical. This first occurred to the English, who bundled their
forces into a monopoly enterprise, the East India Company in 1600, thereby
threatening their Dutch competitors with ruin. In 1602, the Dutch government
followed suit, sponsoring the creation of a single "United East Indies Company"
that was also granted a monopoly over the Asian trade. The charter of the new
company empowered it to build forts,
 maintain armies, and conclude treaties with Asian rulers. It provided for a
venture that would continue for 21 years, with a financial accounting only at
the end of each decade.[10]
Dutch Batavia in the 17th Century, built in what is now North Jakarta

In 1603, the first permanent Dutch trading post in Indonesia was established in
Banten, West Java and in 1611, another was established at Jayakarta (later
'Batavia' and then 'Jakarta').[11] In 1610, the VOC established the post of
Governor General to enable firmer control of their affairs in Asia. To advise
and control the risk of despotic Governors General, a Council of the Indies
(Raad van Indië) was created. The Governor General effectively became the main
administrator of the VOC's activities in Asia, although the Heeren XVII
continued to officially have overall control.[8]

VOC headquarters were in Ambon for the tenures of the first three Governors
General (1610-1619), but it was not a satisfactory location. Although it was at
the centre of the spice production areas, it was far from the Asian trade
routes and other VOC areas of activity ranging from Africa to Japan. A location
in the west of the archipelago was thus sought; the Straits of Malacca were
strategic, but had become dangerous following the Portuguese conquest and the
first permanent VOC settlement in Banten was controlled by a powerful local
ruler and subject to stiff competition from Chinese and English traders.[8]

In 1604, a second English East India Company voyage commanded by Sir Henry
Middleton reached the islands of Ternate, Tidore, Ambon and Banda; in Banda,
they encountered severe VOC hostility, which saw the beginning of Anglo-Dutch
competition for access to spices.[11] From 1611 to 1617, the English
established trading posts at Sukadana (southwest Kalimantan), Makassar,
Jayakarta and Jepara in Java, and Aceh, Pariaman and Jambi in Sumatra which
threatened Dutch ambitions for a monopoly on East Indies trade.[11] Diplomatic
agreements in Europe in 1620 ushered in a period of cooperation between the
Dutch and the English over the spice trade.[11] This ended with a notorious,
but disputed incident, known as the 'Amboyna massacre', where ten Englishmen
were arrested, tried and beheaded for conspiracy against the Dutch
government.[12] Although this caused outrage in Europe and a diplomatic crisis,
the English quietly withdrew from most of their Indonesian
 activities (except trading in Bantam) and focused on other Asian interests..

[edit] Growth
Graves of Dutch dignitaries in the ruined St Paul's Church in the former Dutch
Malacca

In 1619, Jan Pieterszoon Coen was appointed Governor-General of the VOC. He was
a man of extraordinary vision, far beyond that of the cautious directors at
home. He saw the possibility of the VOC becoming an Asian power, both political
and economic. He was not afraid to use brute force to put the VOC on a firm
footing. On 30 May 1619, Coen, backed by a force of nineteen ships, stormed
Jayakarta driving out the Banten forces, and from the ashes, established
Batavia as the VOC headquarters. To establish a monopoly for the clove trade,
in the 1620s almost the entire native population of the Banda Islands, the
source of nutmeg was deported, driven away, starved to death, or killed in an
attempt to replace them with Dutch plantations, operated with slave labour. He
hoped to settle large numbers of Dutch colonists in the East Indies, but this
part of his policies never materialized, because the Heren XVII were wary at
the time of large, open-ended financial
 commitments.[13]

Another of Coen's ventures was more successful. A major problem in the European
trade with Asia at the time was that the Europeans could offer few goods that
Asian consumers wanted, except silver and gold. European traders therefore had
to pay for spices with the precious metals, and this was in short supply in
Europe, except for Spain and Portugal. The Dutch and English had to obtain it
by creating a trade surplus with other European countries. Coen discovered the
obvious solution for the problem: to start an intra-Asiatic trade system, whose
profits could be used to finance the spice trade with Europe. In the long run
this obviated the need for exports of precious metals from Europe, though at
first it required the formation of a large trading-capital fund in the Indies.
The VOC reinvested a large share of its profits to this end in the period up to
1630.[14] The VOC traded throughout Asia. Ships coming into Batavia from the
Netherlands carried
 supplies for VOC settlements in Asia. Silver and copper from Japan were used
to trade with India and China for silk, cotton, porcelain, and textiles. These
products were either traded within Asia for the coveted spices or brought back
to Europe. The VOC was also instrumental in introducing European ideas and
technology to Asia. The Company supported Christian missionaries and traded
modern technology with China and Japan. A more peaceful VOC trade post on
Dejima, an artificial island off the coast of Nagasaki, was for more than two
hundred years the only place where Europeans were permitted to trade with
Japan.[15]

In 1640, the VOC obtained the port of Galle, Sri Lanka, from the Portuguese and
broke the latter's monopoly of the cinnamon trade. In 1658, Gerard Hulft laid
siege to Colombo, which was captured with the help of King Rajasinghe II of
Kandy. By 1659, the Portuguese had been expelled from the coastal regions,
which were then occupied by the VOC, securing for it the monopoly over
cinnamon. To prevent the Portuguese or the English from ever recapturing Sri
Lanka, the VOC went on to conquer the entire Malabar Coast upon the Portuguese,
almost entirely driving them from the west coast of India. When news of a peace
agreement between Portugal and the Netherlands reached Asia in 1663, Goa was
the only remaining Portuguese city on the west coast.[16]

In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck established an outpost at the Cape of Good Hope (the
southwestern tip of Africa, currently in South Africa) to re-supply VOC ships
on their journey to East Asia. This post later became a full-fledged colony,
the Cape Colony, when more Dutch and other Europeans started to settle there.

VOC trading posts were also established in Persia (now Iran), Bengal (now
Bangladesh, but then part of India), Malacca (Melaka, now in Malaysia), Siam
(now Thailand), mainland China (Canton), Formosa (now Taiwan) and the Malabar
Coast and Coromandel Coast in India. In 1662, however, Koxinga expelled the
Dutch from Taiwan (see History of Taiwan).

By 1669, the VOC was the richest private company the world had ever seen, with
over 150 merchant ships, 40 warships, 50,000 employees, a private army of
10,000 soldiers, and a dividend payment of 40% on the original investment.[17]

[edit] Reorientation

Around 1670, two events caused the growth of VOC trade to stall. In the first
place, the highly profitable trade with Japan started to decline. The loss of
the outpost on Formosa to Koxinga and related internal turmoil in China (where
the Ming dynasty was being replaced with the Qing dynasty) brought an end to
the silk trade after 1666. Though the VOC substituted Bengali for Chinese silk
other forces affected the supply of Japanese silver and gold. The shogunate
enacted a number of measures to limit the export of these precious metals, in
the process limiting VOC opportunities for trade, and severely worsening the
terms of trade. Therefore, Japan ceased to function as the lynchpin of the
intra-Asiatic trade of the VOC by 1685.[18]

Even more importantly, the Third Anglo-Dutch War temporarily interrupted VOC
trade with Europe. This caused a spike in the price of pepper, which enticed
the British East India Company (EIC) to aggressively enter this market in the
years after 1672. Previously, one of the tenets of the VOC pricing policy was
to slightly over-supply the pepper market, so as to depress prices below the
level where interlopers were encouraged to enter the market (instead of
striving for short-term profit maximization). The wisdom of such a policy was
illustrated when a fierce price war with the EIC ensued, as that company
flooded the market with new supplies from India. In this struggle for market
share, the VOC (which had much larger financial resources) could wait out the
EIC. Indeed by 1683, the latter came close to bankruptcy; its share price
plummeted from 600 to 250; and its president Josiah Child was temporarily
forced from office.[19]

However, the writing was on the wall. Other companies, like the French East
India Company and the Danish East India Company also started to make inroads on
the Dutch system. The VOC therefore closed the heretofore flourishing open
pepper emporium of Bantam by a treaty of 1684 with the Sultan. Also, on the
Coromandel Coast, it moved its chief stronghold from Pulicat to Negapatnam, so
as to secure a monopoly on the pepper trade at the detriment of the French and
the Danes. [20] However, the importance of these traditional commodities in the
Asian-European trade was diminishing rapidly at the time. The military outlays
that the VOC needed to make to enhance its monopoly were not justified by the
increased profits of this declining trade.[21]

Nevertheless, this lesson was slow to sink in and at first the VOC made the
strategic decision to improve its military position on the Malabar Coast
(hoping thereby to curtail English influence in the area, and end the drain on
its resources from the cost of the Malabar garrisons) by using force to compel
the Zamorin of Calicut to submit to Dutch domination. In 1710, the Zamorin was
made to sign a treaty with the VOC undertaking to trade exclusively with the
VOC and expel other European traders. For a brief time, this appeared to
improve the Company's prospects. However, in 1715, with EIC encouragement, the
Zamorin renounced the treaty. Though a Dutch army managed to suppress this
insurrection temporarily, the Zamorin continued to trade with the English and
the French, which led to an appreciable upsurge in English and French traffic.
The VOC decided in 1721 that it was no longer worth the trouble to try and
dominate the Malabar pepper and spice trade. A
 strategic decdision was taken to scale down the Dutch military presence and in
effect yield the area to EIC influence.[22]

The 1741 Battle of Colachel by Nairs of Travancore under Raja Marthanda Varma
was therefore a rearguard action. The Dutch commander Captain Eustachius De
Lannoy was captured. Marthanda Varma agreed to spare the Dutch captain's life
on condition that he joined his army and trained his soldiers on modern lines.
This defeat in the Travancore-Dutch War is considered the earliest example of
an organized Asian power overcoming European military technology and tactics;
and it signaled the decline of Dutch power in India.[23]

The attempt to continue as before as a low volume-high profit business
enterprise with its core business in the spice trade had therefore failed. The
Company had however already (reluctantly) followed the example of its European
competitors in diversifying into other Asian commodities, like tea, coffee,
cotton, textiles, and sugar. These commodities provided a lower profit margin
and therefore required a larger sales volume to generate the same amount of
revenue. This structural change in the commodity composition of the VOC's trade
started in the early 1680s, after the temporary collapse of the EIC around 1683
offered an excellent opportunity to enter these markets. The actual cause for
the change lies, however, in two structural features of this new era.

In the first place, there was a revolutionary change in the tastes affecting
European demand for Asian textiles, and coffee and tea, around the turn of the
18th century. Secondly, a new era of an abundant supply of capital at low
interest rates suddenly opened around this time. The second factor enabled the
Company to easily finance its expansion in the new areas of commerce.[24]
Between the 1680s and 1720s, the VOC was therefore able to equip and man an
appreciable expansion of its fleet, and acquire a large amount of precious
metals to finance the purchase of large amounts of Asian commodities, for
shipment to Europe. The overall effect was to approximately double the size of
the company.[25]

The tonnage of the returning ships rose by 125 percent in this period. However,
the Company's revenues from the sale of goods landed in Europe rose by only 78
percent. This reflects the basic change in the VOC's circumstances that had
occurred: it now operated in new markets for goods with an elastic demand, in
which it had to compete on an equal footing with other suppliers. This made for
low profit margins.[26] Unfortunately, the business information systems of the
time made this difficult to discern for the managers of the company, which may
partly explain the mistakes they made from hindsight. This lack of information
might have been counteracted (as in earlier times in the VOC's history) by the
business acumen of the directors. Unfortunately by this time these were almost
exclusively recruited from the political regent class, which had long since
lost its close relationship with merchant circles.[27]

Low profit margins in themselves don't explain the deterioration of revenues.
To a large extent the costs of the operation of the VOC had a "fixed" character
(military establishments; maintenance of the fleet and such). Profit levels
might therefore have been maintained if the increase in the scale of trading
operations that in fact took place, had resulted in economies of scale.
However, though larger ships transported the growing volume of goods, labor
productivity did not go up sufficiently to realize these. In general the
Company's overhead rose in step with the growth in trade volume; declining
gross margins translated directly into a decline in profitability of the
invested capital. The era of expansion was one of "profitless growth".[28]

Concretely: "[t]he long-term average annual profit in the VOC's 1630-70 'Golden
Age' was 2.1 million guilders, of which just under half was distributed as
dividends and the remainder reinvested. The long-term average annual profit in
the 'Expansion Age' (1680-1730) was 2.0 million guilders, of which
three-quarters was distributed as dividend and one-quarter reinvested. In the
earlier period, profits averaged 18 percent of total revenues; in the latter
period, 10 percent. The annual return of invested capital in the earlier period
stood at approximately 6 percent; in the latter period, 3.4 percent."[28]

Nevertheless, in the eyes of investors the VOC did not do too badly. The share
price hovered consistently around the 400 mark from the mid-1680s (which,
during a hiccup around the Glorious Revolution in 1688), and they reached an
all-time high of around 642 in the 1720s. VOC shares then yielded a return of
3.5 percent, only slightly less than the yield on Dutch government bonds.[29]

[edit] Decline

However, from there on the fortunes of the VOC started to decline. Five major
problems, not all of equal weight, can be adduced to explain its decline in the
next fifty years to 1780.[30]

    * There was a steady erosion of intra-Asiatic trade by changes in the
Asiatic political and economic environment that the VOC could do little about.
These factors gradually squeezed the company out of Persia, Surat, the Malabar
Coast, and Bengal. The company had to confine its operations to the belt it
physically controlled, from Ceylon through the Indonesian archipelago. The
volume of this intra-Asiatic trade, and its profitability, therefore had to
shrink.
    * The way the company was organized in Asia (centralized on its hub in
Batavia) that initially had offered advantages in gathering market information,
began to cause disadvantages in the 18th century, because of the inefficiency
of first shipping everything to this central point. This disadvantage was most
keenly felt in the tea trade, where competitors like the EIC and the Ostend
Company shipped directly from China to Europe.
    * The "venality" of the VOC's personnel (in the sense of corruption and
non-performance of duties), though a problem for all East-India Companies at
the time, seems to have plagued the VOC on a larger scale than its competitors.
To be sure, the company was not a "good employer". Salaries were low, and
"private-account trading" was officially not allowed. Not surprisingly, it
proliferated in the 18th century to the detriment of the company's
performance.[31] From about the 1790s onward, the phrase perished by corruption
(also abbreviated VOC in Dutch) came to summarize the company's future.
    * A problem that the VOC shared with other companies was the high mortality
and morbidity among its employees. This decimated the company's ranks and
enervated many of the survivors.
    * A self-inflicted wound was the VOC's dividend policy. The dividends
distributed by the company had exceeded the surplus it garnered in Europe in
every decade but one (1710-1720) from 1690 to 1760. However, in the period up
to 1730 the directors shipped resources to Asia to build up the trading capital
there. Consolidated bookkeeping therefore probably would have shown that total
profits exceeded dividends. In addition, between 1700 and 1740 the company
retired 5.4 million guilders of long-term debt. The company therefore was still
on a secure financial footing in these years. This changed after 1730. While
profits plummeted the bewindhebbers only slightly decreased dividends from the
earlier level. Distributed dividends were therefore in excess of earnings in
every decade but one (1760-1770). To accomplish this, the Asian capital stock
had to be drawn down by 4 million guilders between 1730 and 1780, and the
liquid capital available in Europe was
 reduced by 20 million guilders in the same period. The directors were
therefore constrained to replenish the company's liquidity by resorting to
short-term financing from anticipatory loans, backed by expected revenues from
home-bound fleets.

Despite of all this, the VOC in 1780 remained an enormous operation. Its
capital in the Republic, consisting of ships and goods in inventory, totaled 28
million guilders; its capital in Asia, consisting of the liquid trading fund
and goods en route to Europe, totaled 46 million guilders. Total capital, net
of outstanding debt, stood at 62 million guilders. The prospects of the company
at this time therefore need not have been hopeless, had one of the many plans
to reform it been taken successfully in hand. However, then the Fourth
Anglo-Dutch War intervened. British attacks in Europe and Asia reduced the VOC
fleet by half; removed valuable cargo from its control; and devastated its
remaining power in Asia. The direct losses of the VOC can be calculated at 43
million guilders. Loans to keep the company operating reduced its net assets to
zero.[32]

From 1720 on, the market for sugar from Indonesia declined as the competition
from cheap sugar from Brazil increased. European markets became saturated.
Dozens of Chinese sugar traders went bankrupt which led to massive
unemployment, which in turn led to gangs of unemployed coolies. The Dutch
government in Batavia did not adequately respond to these problems. In 1740,
rumors of deportation of the gangs from the Batavia area led to widespread
rioting. The Dutch military searched houses of Chinese in Batavia searching for
weapons. When a house accidentally burnt down, military and impoverished
citizens started slaughtering and pillaging the Chinese community.[33] This
Chinese Massacre was deemed sufficiently serious for the board of the VOC to
start an official investigation into the Government of the Dutch East Indies
for the first time in its history.

After the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, the VOC was a financial wreck, and after vain
attempts by the provincial States of Holland and Zeeland to reorganize it, was
nationalised on 1 March 1796[34] by the new Batavian Republic. Its charter was
renewed several times, but allowed to expire on 31 December 1800.[35] Most of
the possessions of the former VOC were subsequently occupied by Great Britain
during the Napoleonic wars, but after the new United Kingdom of the Netherlands
was created by the Congress of Vienna, some of these were restored to this
successor state of the old Dutch Republic by the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814.

[edit] Organization

The VOC had two types of shareholders: the participanten, who could be seen as
non-managing partners, and the 76 bewindhebbers (later reduced to 60) who acted
as managing partners. This was the usual set-up for Dutch joint-stock companies
at the time. The innovation in the case of the VOC was, that the liability of
not just the participanten, but also of the bewindhebbers was limited to the
paid-in capital (usually, bewindhebbers had unlimited liability). The VOC
therefore was a limited-liability company. Also, the capital would be permanent
during the lifetime of the company. As a consequence, investors that wished to
liquidate their interest in the interim could only do this by selling their
share to others on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange.[36]

The VOC consisted of six Chambers (Kamers) in port cities: Amsterdam, Delft,
Rotterdam, Enkhuizen, Middelburg and Hoorn. Delegates of these chambers
convened as the Heeren XVII (the Lords Seventeen). They were selected from the
bewindhebber-class of shareholders.[37]

Of the Heeren XVII, eight delegates were from the Chamber of Amsterdam (one
short of a majority on its own), four from the Chamber of Zeeland, and one from
each of the smaller Chambers, while the seventeenth seat was alternatively from
the Chamber of Zeeland or rotated among the five small Chambers. Amsterdam had
thereby the decisive voice. The Zeelanders in particular had misgivings about
this arrangement at the beginning. The fear was not unfounded, because in
practice it meant Amsterdam stipulated what happened.
Two sides of a duit, a coin minted in 1735 by the VOC.

The six chambers raised the start-up capital of the Dutch East India Company:
Chamber         Capital (Guilders)
Amsterdam       3,679,915
Middelburg      1,300,405
Enkhuizen       540,000
Delft   469,400
Hoorn   266,868
Rotterdam       173,000
Total:  6,424,588

The raising of capital in Rotterdam did not go so smoothly. A considerable part
originated from inhabitants of Dordrecht. Although it did not raise as much
capital as Amsterdam or Zeeland, Enkhuizen had the largest input in the share
capital of the VOC. Under the first 358 shareholders, there were many small
entrepreneurs, who dared to take the risk. The minimum investment in the VOC
was 3,000 guilders, which priced the Company's stock within the means of many
merchants.[38]

Among the early shareholders of the VOC, immigrants played an important role.
Under the 1,143 tenderers were 39 Germans and no fewer than 301
Zuid-Nederlanders (roughly present Belgium and Luxemburg, then under Habsburg
rule), of whom Isaac le Maire was the largest subscriber with ƒ85,000. VOC's
total capitalization was ten times that of its British rival.
The logo of the Amsterdam Chamber of the VOC.

The logo of the VOC consisted of a large capital 'V' with an O on the left and
a C on the right leg. The first letter of the hometown of the chamber
conducting the operation was placed on top (see figure for example of the
Amsterdam chamber logo). The flag of the company was orange, white, blue (see
Dutch flag) with the company logo embroidered on it.

The Heeren XVII (Lords Seventeen) met alternately 6 years in Amsterdam and 2
years in Middelburg. They defined the VOC's general policy and divided the
tasks among the Chambers. The Chambers carried out all the necessary work,
built their own ships and warehouses and traded the merchandise. The Heeren
XVII sent the ships' masters off with extensive instructions on the route to be
navigated, prevailing winds, currents, shoals and landmarks. The VOC also
produced its own charts.

In the context of the Dutch-Portuguese War the company established its
headquarters in Batavia, Java (now Jakarta, Indonesia). Other colonial outposts
were also established in the East Indies, such as on the Spice Islands
(Moluccas), which include the Banda Islands, where the VOC forcibly maintained
a monopoly over nutmeg and mace. Methods used to maintain the monopoly included
the violent suppression of the native population, not stopping short of
extortion and mass murder.[citation needed] In addition, VOC representatives
sometimes used the tactic of burning spice trees in order to force indigenous
populations to grow other crops, thus artificially cutting the supply of spices
like nutmeg and cloves.[39]

[edit] VOC outposts

Organization and leadership structures were varied as necessary in the various
VOC outposts:

            See more at VOC Kapitans in India
            See more at VOC Factors in China

Opperhoofd is a Dutch word (plural Opperhoofden) which literally means 'supreme
head[man]'. In this VOC context, the word is a gubernatorial title, comparable
to the English Chief factor, for the chief executive officer of a Dutch factory
in the sense of trading post, as lead by a Factor, i.e. agent.

            See more at VOC Opperhoofden in Japan

[edit] Notable VOC ships

        Replicas have been constructed of several VOC ships, marked with an (R)

VOC Amsterdam replicates the three-masted, full-rigged VOC vessel which was
launched in 1748 and sunk in 1749.
A modern reconstruction of the 18th century VOC Amsterdam is permanently
anchored in the harbor at the Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum (the National
Maritime Museum) in Amsterdam.

    * Amsterdam (R)
    * Arnhem
    * Batavia (R)
    * Braek
    * Concordia
    * Duyfken ("Little Dove") (R)
    * Eendracht (1615) ("Unity")
    * Galias
    * Grooten Broeck ("Great Brook")
    * Gulden Zeepaert ("Golden Seahorse")
    * Halve Maen ("Half moon") (R)
    * Hoogkarspel
    * Heemskerck
    * Hollandia
    * Klein Amsterdam ("Small Amsterdam")
    * Leeuwerik ("Lark")
    * Leyden
    * Limmen
    * Pera
    * Prins Willem ("Prince William") (R)
    * Ridderschap van Holland ("Knighthood of Holland")
    * Rooswijk
    * Sardam
    * Texel
    * Utrecht
    * Vergulde Draeck ("Gilded Dragon")
    * Vianen
    * Vliegende Hollander ("Flying Dutchman")
    * Vliegende Swaan ("Flying Swan")
    * Wapen van Hoorn ("Arms of Hoorn")
    * Wezel ("Weasel")
    * Zeehaen ("Sea Cock")
    * Zeemeeuw ("Seagull")
    * Zeewijk
    * Zuytdorp ("South Village")

[edit] See also
        Indonesia portal
Dutch and other European settlements in India.

    * Chartered companies
    * Spice wars

Other trade companies of the age of the sail

    * The British East India Company, founded in 1600
    * The Danish East India Company, founded in 1616
    * The Dutch West India Company, founded in 1621
    * The French East India Company, founded in 1664
    * The Ostend Company, founded in 1715
    * The Swedish East India Company, founded in 1731

Governors General of the Dutch East India Company

    * Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

Famous people of the VOC

    * Steven van der Hagen (1563-1621 Admiral)
    * Pieter van den Broecke (1585-1640 Merchant)
    * Willem Ysbrandtsz Bontekoe (1587-1657 a well-known VOC skipper)
    * Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge (1569-1632 Admiral)
    * Jan Pieterszoon Coen (1587-1629 Governor)
    * Wiebbe Hayes (1608-? Soldier on Batavia)
    * Hendrik Hamel (1630-1692 Bookkeeper, Writer)
    * Engelbert Kaempfer (1651-1716 Surgeon, Writer)
    * Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1828 Naturalist)
    * Isaac Titsingh (1745-1812 Merchant)
    * Jan van Riebeeck (1619 - 1677 Commander of first Dutch Settlement in the
Cape of Good Hope)

[edit] References

   1. ^ Mondo Visione web site: Chambers, Clem. "Who needs stock exchanges?"
Exchanges Handbook. -- retrieved 1 February 2008.
   2. ^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European
Discovery, 1500-1700. p. 102-103.
   3.. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd
Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 110. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
   4. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 383
   5. ^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European
Discovery, 1500-1700. p. 97-99.
   6. ^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European
Discovery, 1500-1700. p. 99.
   7. ^ a b Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300,
2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 27. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
   8. ^ a b c d Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since
c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 25-28. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
   9. ^ In the medium term, as new suppliers could enter the market. In the
short term the supply was, of course, also inelastic.
  10. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 384-385
  11. ^ a b c d Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since
c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 29. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
  12. ^ Miller, George (ed.) (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels
in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. xvi. ISBN
967-65-3099-9.
  13. ^ De Vries and Vander Woude, p. 386
  14. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 386
  15. ^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European
Discovery, 1500-1700. p. 115.
  16. ^ VOC Warfare - political interaction
  17. ^ The share price had appreciated significantly, so in that respect the
dividend was less impressive
  18. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp. 434-435
  19. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp. 430-433
  20. ^ During the Nine Year's War, the French and Dutch companies came to
blows on the Indian Subcontinent. The French sent naval expeditions from
metropolitan France, which the VOC easily countered. On the other hand, the VOC
conquered the important fortress of Pondichérie after a siege of only sixteen
days by an expedition of 3000 men and 19 ships under Laurens Pit from
Negapatnam in September 1693. The Dutch then made the defenses of the fortress
impregnable, which they came to regret when the Dutch government returned it to
the French by the Treaty of Ryswick in exchange for tariff concessions in
Europe by the French. Chauhuri and Israel, p 424
  21. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp. 433-434
  22. ^ Chaudhuri and Israel, pp. 428-429
  23. ^ However, the VOC had been defeated many times before. On the Indian
Subcontinent, the EIC had suffered a resounding defeat from the Mughal forces
in its 1689 Mughal War; Chaudhury and Israel, pp. 435-436
  24. ^ It was also helpful that the price war with the EIC in the early decade
had caused the accumulation of enormous inventories of pepper and spices, which
enabled the VOC to cut down on shipments later on, thereby freeing up capital
to increase shipments of other goods;De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 436
  25. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp.436-437
  26. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp.. 437-440
  27. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp. 441-442
  28. ^ a b De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 447
  29. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 448
  30. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp.449-455
  31. ^ A particularly egregious example was that of the "Amfioen Society".
This was a business of higher VOC-employees that received a monopoly of the
opium trade on Java, at a time when the VOC had to pay monopoly prices to the
EIC to buy the opium in Bengal; Burger, passim
  32. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp.454-455
  33. ^ Kumar, Ann (1997). Java and Modern Europe: Ambiguous Encounters. p. 32.
  34. ^ TANAP, The end of the VOC
  35. ^ ibid.
  36. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 385
  37. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp.384-385
  38. ^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European
Discovery, 1500-1700. p. 103.
  39. ^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European
Discovery, 1500-1700. p. 111.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_India_Company

THE DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY

VOC

VEREENIGDE OOSTINDISCHE COMPAGNIE

Written by Marco Ramerini
        Dutch Flag Voc

In March 1594 some Dutch merchants founded a "Company of Far Lands" at
Amsterdam, their objective was to send two fleets to East Indies. The first
fleet of four ships reached Bantam and returned in the Netherlands in August
1597, only three ships with a small cargo of pepper returned but it more than
covered the cost of the expedition. Following the steeps of this first
enterprise five different companies (voorcompagniën) were founded, in 1598
twenty two ships left Dutch ports for East Indies. In 1601 sixty five ships
left for the East Indies.

As early as 1598, the States General suggested that various companies should
amalgamate. On March 20, 1602, finally from a fusion of six small Dutch
companies the VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie) was born, the unification
into one company did not happen spontaneously, but was enforced by the Dutch
government. The charter (octrooi) was valid for 21 years. The States General,
granted a monopoly on the trade in the East Indies to the Dutch East India
Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC), the area of trade granted to
the company was called the octrooigebied (trade zone). Its purpose was not only
trade; the Compagnie also had to fight the enemies of the Republic and prevent
other European nations to enter the East India trade. During its history of 200
years, the VOC became the largest company of its kind, trading spices (nutmeg,
cloves, cinnamon and pepper mainly) and other products (tea, silk and chinese
porcelain). The VOC was virtually
 a state within a state.

The new company was divided into six regional boards (kamer) which were
established in the former seats of the pioneer companies: Amsterdam,
Middelburg, Delft, Rotterdam, Hoorn and Enkhuizen. Each of the regional
chambers of the VOC had a board of directors. The Heeren XVII, the government
body of the company, was a court of seventeen directors, they were chosen from
among the regional directors. Eight of the Heeren XVII represented the
Amsterdam chamber, four the Middelburg, and one representative from each of the
other chambers (Delft, Rotterdam, Hoorn and Enkhuizen), the seventeenth
director was provided by rotation among all the chambers save Amsterdam.

The company was from the start very successfully, in 1605 the VOC captured
Ambon and Tidore and drive the Portuguese from the Moluccas, later in 1619
Batavia was founded. During the following years the Portuguese power in the
East was destroyed: the Dutch estabilished factories in Coromandel, Bengal,
Iran, Gujarat, Formosa (Taiwan), founded Cape Town as naval base along the
route to the East, conquered from the Portuguese Malacca (1641), Ceylon
(1656-1658) and the Malabar coast (1661-1663). The company extended its trade
network from Africa, Arabia, Persian Gulf, India, East Indies until China and
Japan.

The total figures for the two centuries of the Company's operations, for trade
turnover, shipping and personnel, are impressive. The business was on a much
larger scale in the eighteenth century than it had been in the seventeenth. In
1608 the Dutch had 40 ships manned by 5.000 men in Asia, 20 ships with 400 men
off the coast of Guinea and 100 ships with 1.800 men in the West Indies. In
1644 the VOC alone had 150 ships and 15.000 men and in the last quarter of the
17th century it had in the East Indies over 200 ships and 30.000 men. For
instance, in total the VOC fitted out some 4,700 ships, nearly 1,700 in the
seventeenth century and a good 3,000 in the eighteenth. Between 1602 and 1700,
317,000 people sailed from Europe on these ships, while between 1700 and 1795
this total reached 655,000. Trade figures confirm the growth of the business
after 1700. The expenditure on equipage, that is to say shipbuilding and
outfitting as well as the money and goods
 that were sent to Asia, reached the sum of fl. 370 million between 1640 and
1700, and fl. 1,608 million in the years 1700-1795. In these periods the
purchase prices of the return goods shipped home from Asia reached fl. 205 and
fl. 667 million respectively; the sales prices of these return wares were fl.
577 million in the first period and fl. 1,633 in the second.

The VOC formally dissolved on 31 December 1795 and its debts and possessions
taken over by the Batavian Republic.

Bibliography:
- Boxer, CH.R. "The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600-1800" London, 1965
- Furber, Holden "Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600-1800" Minneapolis,
1976
- Gaastra, F.S. "VOC - ORGANIZATION" TANAP WEB Site
http://www.tanap.net/content/voc/organization/organization_intro.htm
- Vinius, G. D. Vink, P. M. M. "The merchant-warrior pacified. The VOC and its
changing political economy in India" Delhi, 1991
http://www.colonialvoyage.com/vocd.html
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